Over the last ten months I have continued to learn what it means to be a life-long learner and passionate environmental educator. I associate this high level of personal and professional growth to my Master’s program in the field of Environmental Education (EE) and its ability to help me further develop my own critical-thinking skills. What I have learned alongside my students, peers, and teachers is that informed decision making does not happen by imposing prescribed views or courses of action onto learners, but rather effective EE provides every person with opportunities to acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes needed to evaluate information and points of view for themselves, hence be critical thinkers. Though there are many contexts in which EE can occur, the following are a few qualities of effective EE that help nourish critical thinking skills.
- EE develops critical thinking skills by inspiring an attitude of inquiry. Children are naturally inquisitive. Many teaching practices however don’t harness the power of this natural curiosity in the classroom. EE programming on the other hand challenges this way of interacting with our own learning. EE offers tangible opportunities for students- young or old to slow down and observe the world and its many different systems the way kids do, uninhibited with zeal and wonder. Allowing time for spontaneous teachable moments such as finding a dead animal on the trail, eliciting students’ ideas in a free flow continuous conversation or having students work on mind map where they write down as many ideas they have about a topic or question are examples of how inquiry is fostered in EE.
- EE develops critical thinking through recognizing that learners build upon prior knowledge and experience to construct their own knowledge. To help students build upon prior knowledge, students can be provided with various questioning strategies. Having students build upon their observations and turn them into questions can be one way for students to expand on their knowledge base. Adding to this, students can be taught how to identify which types of questions they are asking such as open, closed, factual, philosophical and so forth. As educators, we can ask probing questions of our students to get them to think deeper about a topic or a response. By not giving students the answers and making them do the heavy lifting of the thinking their critical thinking skills develop. Many EE lessons require students to make detailed observations, question information from multiple perspectives, draw conclusions based on evidence and question when an argument or claim isn’t’ well supported. All of these skills which are components needed of strong critical thinking.
- EE develops critical thinking skills by encouraging the use of cooperative and collaborative learning. EE programs often integrate a mixture of large group, small group, and individual learning, opportunities. This high level of collaboration amongst peers and multi-aged learners enhances critical thinking skills by increasing students’ exposure to multiple perspectives and ideas. Cooperative learning challenges an individual to be flexible and open minded when considering alternatives and divergent world views. Collaborative learning also provides opportunities for an individual to honestly face one’s own biases, prejudices, stereotypes. This helps create fair-thinkers that are equipped to responsibly and rationally respond to a wide variety of challenges and situations present in our ever-changing global society.
- EE develops critical thinking through reflective practice and inspiring a lifelong love for learning. Reflective practice is, in its simplest form, thinking about or reflecting on what you do. It is closely linked to the concept of learning from experience, in that you think about what you did, and what happened, and decide from that what you would do differently next time. In order to reflect on ones’ own practice or an experience, you must have the skills to constructively and rationally interpret and analyze a given situation. EE provides opportunities to develop these skills through written, oral, kinesthetic activities that can happen in group or individual settings. As a practitioner of EE, my reflection process has increased my ability to think critically about which lessons I am teaching and why I am teaching them. EE provides a space to develop a growth mindset where a culture of error is normalized. Meaning, there is room to make mistakes and try again and continue to ask more questions. This is critical for the development as an effective educator, a community member and environmental steward.
- EE develops critical thinking by employing a hands-on, minds-on approach, which includes physical involvement (where applicable), problem-solving, decision-making, reasoning, and creative thinking. Additionally, quality EE accommodates different learning styles, and the developmental needs of the whole person (social, emotional, physical, mental, intellectual, aesthetic, and spiritual). All of these attributes help an individual relate to a concept on a personal and memorable level. The more memorable an experience is, the more likely someone is to continue to think critically about that experience and compare and contrast future experiences.
The qualities of inquiry, questioning, problem solving, collaboration and reflection that EE curriculum employs to help students develop critical thinking skills can can also be applied in a wide variety of contexts by any educator. Below are a few practical tips educators can use to develop critical thinking skills with their students:
- Elicit students’ ideas
- Help students turn their observations into questions
- Create a culture where students back up their claims in with evidence and rationale.
- Don’t unwrap the present for them- meaning let them guess and figure out what will happen in a given situation.
- Encourage the students do the hard thinking.
- Avoid rounding up answers and guiding students responses to a specific outcome.
- Embrace a culture of error that encourages students to take risks and offer new ideas
- Have lessons that use a variety of teaching and learning styles
- Incorporate reflection practices into your teaching