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Students Become Teachers in Three Ways

Rationale

While there is substantial research on the importance and success of learning through teaching, oftentimes this opportunity is not afforded to students. It can be nerve-racking for teachers to relinquish their role of authority and power; however, I have found this intentional role reversal to be a powerful teaching tool that optimizes student learning. This article will outline three techniques that have proven successful in flipping the student-teacher paradigm: student driven and led discussions, student ownership over what they learn, and students teaching one another.

First, create the habit and expectation of students calling on each other, rather than being called on by the teacher. While it is easy for the teacher to act as group facilitator in discussions, I have found that stepping back and letting students call on one another re-focuses everyone’s attention on the students and not on the teacher. This shift in attention encourages students to listen to each other, and creates a community of learning that promotes sharing and valuing multiple perspectives. By guiding lessons themselves, students gain skills in leading and shaping discussions as well as in making space for everyone’s voice to be heard. This technique helps students to cultivate a mindset that says, “We need not rely solely on our teacher, for we are the drivers of our own education.” This perspective is one that students will utilize as lifelong learners in and out of the classroom.

Second, give students the opportunity to create the schedule for a day, or even the whole week. What better way to respond to student interests than by having them decide what they learn? For example, during a peer observation, I watched an instructor outline four possible options for the final day of a four-day residential outdoor program. Before the instructor handed over the decision-making process to the group of students, she first made sure to state her main goal for the day: to think about what they had learned and how they could incorporate it into their lives at home. This goal could be accomplished in many places and take many forms. Each option included a place that they had yet to visit, as well as distinctly different ways to achieve the instructor’s overall objective for the day. Students were excited to have a say in their final day, and ultimately came to a consensus on their own by combining two of the options. Giving students choices empowers them to take ownership and authority over their own learning, which helps to build intrinsic motivation, an attribute that they will carry with them into the future.

Third, facilitate the activity known as “Each One Teach One.” Learning through re-telling invites students to put complicated concepts in their own words, to identify key points, and to organize information into a coherent structure. For example, for Ethno-botany Each One Teach One, students are spaced out along a path, and the instructor teaches each student one on one about a certain plant, and then that student teaches every subsequent student about their plant. Ultimately, if there are ten students in the group, each student presents their plant nine times, and learns about 10 different plants. This activity is an efficient way to have students practice presenting information over and over, and ensures that everyone participates. Additionally, for students who are a bit shyer when it comes to presenting, this activity gives them the opportunity to shine by interacting one on one. Instructors have the option to hand out a card with information about the plant to each student in order to have something to reference when presenting. I have found it most powerful to save the cards to hand out after the Each One Teach One activity in order to give students the opportunity to be creative in their descriptions and empowered to use their own words.

Each One Teach One is a versatile lesson in that can be applied to any subject. In addition to ethno-botany, I have had great success using this technique in the garden to introduce students to vegetables and herbs. The activity not only allows students to explain how to grow, harvest, and identify the plant, but also lets them showcase their cultural and personal backgrounds by sharing how they would cook with it and what dishes they have eaten it in. For English Language Learners, this activity is especially useful in giving students the opportunity to practice using descriptive words and to build up their vocabulary. Having to explain something to somebody else helps students to master any given subject by motivating students to be able to describe their ideas well enough in order for others to understand them, an essential life skill.

Students become empowered learners by leading their own discussions, having ownership over what they get to learn, and teaching each other. By blurring the line between student and teacher, these activities help to create communities that value a myriad of voices all learning from and teaching one another.

While there is substantial research on the importance and success of learning through teaching, oftentimes this opportunity is not afforded to students. It can be nerve-racking for teachers to relinquish their role of authority and power; however, I have found this intentional role reversal to be a powerful teaching tool that optimizes student learning. This article will outline three techniques that have proven successful in flipping the student-teacher paradigm: student driven and led discussions, student ownership over what they learn, and students teaching one another.

First, create the habit and expectation of students calling on each other, rather than being called on by the teacher. While it is easy for the teacher to act as group facilitator in discussions, I have found that stepping back and letting students call on one another re-focuses everyone’s attention on the students and not on the teacher. This shift in attention encourages students to listen to each other, and creates a community of learning that promotes sharing and valuing multiple perspectives. By guiding lessons themselves, students gain skills in leading and shaping discussions as well as in making space for everyone’s voice to be heard. This technique helps students to cultivate a mindset that says, “We need not rely solely on our teacher, for we are the drivers of our own education.” This perspective is one that students will utilize as lifelong learners in and out of the classroom.

Second, give students the opportunity to create the schedule for a day, or even the whole week. What better way to respond to student interests than by having them decide what they learn? For example, during a peer observation, I watched an instructor outline four possible options for the final day of a four-day residential outdoor program. Before the instructor handed over the decision-making process to the group of students, she first made sure to state her main goal for the day: to think about what they had learned and how they could incorporate it into their lives at home. This goal could be accomplished in many places and take many forms. Each option included a place that they had yet to visit, as well as distinctly different ways to achieve the instructor’s overall objective for the day. Students were excited to have a say in their final day, and ultimately came to a consensus on their own by combining two of the options. Giving students choices empowers them to take ownership and authority over their own learning, which helps to build intrinsic motivation, an attribute that they will carry with them into the future.

Third, facilitate the activity known as “Each One Teach One.” Learning through re-telling invites students to put complicated concepts in their own words, to identify key points, and to organize information into a coherent structure. For example, for Ethno-botany Each One Teach One, students are spaced out along a path, and the instructor teaches each student one on one about a certain plant, and then that student teaches every subsequent student about their plant. Ultimately, if there are ten students in the group, each student presents their plant nine times, and learns about 10 different plants. This activity is an efficient way to have students practice presenting information over and over, and ensures that everyone participates. Additionally, for students who are a bit shyer when it comes to presenting, this activity gives them the opportunity to shine by interacting one on one. Instructors have the option to hand out a card with information about the plant to each student in order to have something to reference when presenting. I have found it most powerful to save the cards to hand out after the Each One Teach One activity in order to give students the opportunity to be creative in their descriptions and empowered to use their own words.

Each One Teach One is a versatile lesson in that can be applied to any subject. In addition to ethno-botany, I have had great success using this technique in the garden to introduce students to vegetables and herbs. The activity not only allows students to explain how to grow, harvest, and identify the plant, but also lets them showcase their cultural and personal backgrounds by sharing how they would cook with it and what dishes they have eaten it in. For English Language Learners, this activity is especially useful in giving students the opportunity to practice using descriptive words and to build up their vocabulary. Having to explain something to somebody else helps students to master any given subject by motivating students to be able to describe their ideas well enough in order for others to understand them, an essential life skill.

Students become empowered learners by leading their own discussions, having ownership over what they get to learn, and teaching each other. By blurring the line between student and teacher, these activities help to create communities that value a myriad of voices all learning from and teaching one another.

About the Author
Maia Bernstein

Maia Bernstein is currently a Master’s of Education student in a partnership program between IslandWood and the University of Washington, with a focus on Educating for Environment and Community. Maia has a BA in East Asian Studies and Religion from Oberlin College, and has experience living and teaching in China and Taiwan. After returning to the States, Maia taught environmental and garden education in Vermont. She has a passion for sustainable agriculture, music, and teaching kids in the outdoors.