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When conducting student-led investigations in the field, the variety of questions, tools, and methods that students use can make summative assessment difficult for the instructor.  Though debriefing the experience can be a great way to find evidence of student learning, there may be students who tend not to contribute in group discussions.  Journal work, though comprehensive in some students, may be lacking in others.  I have found that requiring my students to present their research to the rest of the group not only provides excellent evidence of learning, but also gives my students the opportunity to share their work, ask and answer questions of each other, and be applauded for their achievement. 

Presentations  allow students to take ownership of their work and feel proud of their achievement, while allowing them to learn from one another through sharing knowledge and asking questions. Often, I find that student presentations level the playing field, giving every student the opportunity to share, question, and think about one another’s work in a safe environment.  Lastly, it provides an avenue for students to feel a sense of accomplishment at the end of their investigation.

Here are a few tips for incorporating research presentations into your student-led investigations.

  1. Explain and Scaffold the experience.

    Let students know at the beginning of the investigation that they will be presenting their research to the rest of the group once they are finished.  This will entail two responsibilities: to present their work, and to listen and ask questions of their peers.  Explain that this is an opportunity to share their hard work with one another, ask each other questions, and hear what their teammates have been working on.  Address concerns on nervousness by giving a few guidelines. For example, I allow my students to present individually, in pairs, and occasionally in groups of three.  Encourage them to be creative and fun in their presentations! 

  2. Name the steps.
    Be explicit about what you want your students to present.  I require five components in my students’ presentations:
    1. Their question
    2. Their methods & tools
    3. Their results: data, what they found
    4. Their conclusion: what did they learn from their results?
    5. Next steps: what might have affected the accuracy or usefulness of their data, what they learned about using their tools/method, follow-up questions, etc.

      These should align with the steps they are following to complete their investigation, and so can be modified based on the instructor’s style in facilitating investigations.

  3. Give students the opportunity to prepare.
    Set aside a few minutes at the end of the investigation to give students time to prepare for their presentation. Encourage them to make their presentations unique! If some students are ready to present before others, instruct them to start thinking of good questions to ask their peers.

  4. Create a visual reminder.
    List each component of the presentation on a whiteboard or butcher paper and place it where the presenters can easily reference it.  If students lose their train of thought or freeze up, gently remind them what to say next, for example: “excellent question! What method did you use to begin answering it?”  Some students will give the entire presentation without a hitch, while others might benefit from a more conversational presentation, with prompts from the instructor. 

  5. Encourage questions.
    One of the most fruitful and interesting aspects of these presentations are the questions students ask of one another. These can lead to excellent discussions, follow-up lessons or activities, and insight for the instructor on students’ thinking. Be explicit about when it is time for student questions, particularly if you prompt students during their presentations.  Ask follow-up questions!

Student-led investigation presentations are versatile, fun, and interesting, and can be used in a variety of contexts.  They are excellent summative assessment tools, great teambuilding exercises, and a way to challenge your students to think critically, support one another, and be supported in a different way.

Judge a man by his questions rather than by his answers~ Voltaire

Questions are everywhere! They provide the spark for new insights along with smiles and wonder. Answers are what many seek; yet questions offer the way.  We see this natural ability to question on full display every week during our residential program.  Questions come as natural as breathing does for many children and almost as vital! Persistent inspection allows students to make sense of, pick apart, define, re-define and hopefully navigate the world around them.  We encourage young learners to ask as many questions as they can think of. Sadly, the older we become the fewer questions we ask. We do not lose the ability to question, only the desire; possibly because most bosses and teachers are often more interested in answers, not questions. 

Socrates provides an excellent role model as well as a blue print for why and how we question.

  1. To deeply probe student thinking, to help students begin to distinguish what they know or understand from what they do not.
  2. To foster students ability to ask questions along with engaging in dialogue in order to apply these skills in everyday life.

We as educators can model questioning strategies as well as creating a safe environment for practice. Further Socratic questioning highlights the importance of questioning in learning. It inspires us to dig deeper into our ideas along with improving our ability to become active and independent learners.  Socrate's method can be broken down into four steps:

Elicit What do you think at this point?

What do you mean by x?

Do you really mean x to apply in this or other cases?


How does x account for y?

How do you know? Why should I believe that?

Can that really be true given z?

Decide Can you come up with a new proposition given what you have just learned?


“No one can teach, if by teaching we mean the transmission of knowledge, in any mechanical fashion, from one person to another. The most that can be done is that one person to another. The most that can be done is that one person who is more knowledgeable than another, can by asking a series of questions, stimulate the other to think, and so cause him to learn for himself.” ~ Socrates.

Sources: http://repository.cmu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1126&context=hsshonors


Bees are amazing animals.  As a teaching tool they open up a wide world of education topics to explore! I am going to share some reasons I think it is useful to teach with bees. This is not an exhaustive list but a place to start, use your imagination be creative and try something new!

Safety in taking risks/ Teambuilding

Bees are remarkable insects, however students experiences may only reflect their knowledge of painful stings.  I think the best way to handle this situation is have the students come up with safe ways to behave around bees and acknowledgement of different comfort levels. Remind students it understandable to fear something you don’t know much about but after the lesson hopefully they will feel more comfortable. The group of students can encourage each other to take risks and practice empathy.

Lesson idea: Comfort circle


Why study bee anatomy?

Bees have many unique adaptations that make them interesting to study.  Some are easy to understand adaptations of the worker bees like pollen baskets on their legs or furry bodies and some are hard to grasp like how bees are able to turn nectar into honey. And then there is the anatomy of the queen bee and drones to discuss. Because bees are so complexstudents can grapple with multiple concepts and begin to understand the system that is a honeybee and their colony. 

Lesson idea: Mind map of adaptations and uses for each type of bee

Life of a bee/ Teambuilding

The life of a honeybee is a complicated one (depending on what kind it is).  There are so many jobs to be done and so many bees to help! Every bee has a job that helps the community or colony of bees share success.

Communication through dance is such a large part of a honeybee’s life and is so different and interesting to watch.  This dance is shared to communicate where to find the best flowers to collect nectar and pollen. This can easily lead into a conversation about different ways humans communicate and the importance of communication for bees as well as humans and even more specifically within your group of students.

Once students explore the hierarchy of jobs for worker bees (which depend on the age of the worker bee), the queen bee, and drones they can find similarities and differences between their lives and perhaps further explore some adaptations of their anatomy!

Lesson idea: Team jobs, Bee waggle game

Bees are great resource to cover some pretty important topics but why should you care about bees anyways?! Sure they make honey that you can eat and they pollinate (mutualistic relationship) the flowers and food you enjoy like apples and blackberries. But they are also an indicator of the health of an ecosystem. You can ask students to explain their connection to honey bees.  Students can take their experience with bees to further explorations of other pollinators, agriculture systems, organic farming, where their own food comes from and see the large impact that the insect they were afraid of has in their life. 

Criqui SnailI have noticed something very peculiar over the past year while undergoing my teaching practicum at IslandWood. Whether we are wading through the muddy waters near the marsh or flipping over barnacle-encrusted rocks down at the harbor, children primarily use male pronouns when addressing all the critters we encounter. This bothers me, and not because I believe the animals must be referred to by their proper pronouns (non-human animals have no conceptual understanding of what gender is and couldn’t care less about the words coming from our mouths). This bothers me because this type of gendering of the natural world is a result of toxic patriarchal attitudes, particularly males being seeing as the standard and default form of humanity.

Now you may be thinking, “WOAH, don’t you think it’s kind of extreme to attribute a child calling a slug “he” to toxic patriarchy.” To which I would respond, “No.” It may be true that there are no immediate negative consequences that emerge from a group of 4th graders using male pronouns to describe the slug they just found, but the long term effects can be much more detrimental. When the idea that male is the standard gender is reinforced, it can cause an inflation of ego in young boys and a decrease in the self-esteem of young girls. It can lead to boys thinking they are the stronger/better of the sexes and to develop negative attitudes toward anything that is feminized by our culture. It can lead to girls feeling like they are limited in what they are able to achieve within our society. I believe it is my job as a queer, gender-nonconforming educator to do my part to dismantle the preconceived notions that my students have about gender. And the outdoors is a great place for this to occur.

Below are some strategies that I employ in order to get my kids thinking about gender while outside.

  1. criqui wormPronouns- While performing introductions to new students, I express what gender pronouns I use. I usually say something like, “My name is Criqui and I use he/him pronouns.” Some students may not understand why this is necessary, but just explain that sometimes you cannot tell a person’s gender just by looking at them. Even if you think your gender pronouns are obvious, you opening up about gender may make a child exploring their gender feel more secure in your presence. Have students share their gender pronouns as too.
  2. Use “She”- When I use he to talk about animals I find in nature, kids don’t typically make a peep about its sex. But when I use she, the first question is usually, “How can you tell it’s a she?” I like to point this fact out to students and ask them to think about why they so readily accepted male pronouns but feel the need to clarify when I use female pronouns. With animals that I can’t tell the sex, I’ll just say something along the lines of “I’m not sure, but there’s a 50% chance that I’m right.”
  3. Challenge Gendered Anthropomorphization- Giving human characteristics to non-human animals is probably something people have been doing since language was first invented. Anthropomorphizing can be helpful for allowing young people to better understand the natural world around them. But it can also constrain their learning when they can’t view animals outside of human framework. When discussing the sex of animals with students, make sure to challenge any assertions that rely on socially constructed understanding of gender. For example, “I think that squirrel is male because it’s gathering food for its family. The mommy squirrel is at home taking care of the kids.” In this situation I would praise the student for thinking creatively, but then ask questions that challenged this train of thought. “Do only mother squirrels take care of their young? Are we sure this squirrel has a mate? What if this squirrel is too young to have kids?”
  4. Criqui DucksTeach Sexual Dimorphism- You might want to call this something different depending on the age of your students, but sexual dimorphism is a great concept to get kids thinking critically about how sex shows up in nature. Sexual Dimorphism is the condition where different sexes in the same species have notably varying physical traits. Many birds, such as mallards or red-winged blackbirds have different colorations depending on their sex. When students are aware that of this distinction in certain species, they are more likely to remember that not all animals are male.
  5. Slugs- I have encouraged my fair share of kids to kiss a banana slug. It is extremely common for kids to circle around the first slug spotted in the week and gawk at its slow moving body and wriggling tentacula. Slugs are also a GREAT opportunity to talk about gender. Slugs don’t have a sex that can be classified as male or female. When they’re born, they’ve got all the parts to get pregnant and all the parts to impregnate others. This concept usually blows kids’ minds, and last week I had a kid repeat throughout the week, “They don’t have a gender, that’s so weird.” With those sorts of remarks I always to try to respond by expressing that’s actually really natural and happens in so many species that we’ve already seen so far (barnacles, seas anemones, worms). Sometimes I like to say how lucky the slug it since it doesn’t have to worry about gender. “This slug is my role model, but it never has to worry if something it’s doing is too girly or if it is looking too much like a boy. I do my best to be like this slug!”

I’ve found these techniques to have varying effectiveness depending on the group of students. These conversations can often lead into important discussions related to gender in humans, which are invaluable to have in the classroom setting. As issues related to transgender rights and gender non-conformity become more prevalent in our culture, we must prepare our students to live in a world with all types of people. When we engage with our students about these types of topics, we are readying them for a diverse world full of all kinds of people. Keep having these conversations and push your students to think outside of the gender box that’s been placed upon us!

Today we know with certainty that segregation is dead. The only question remaining is how costly will be the funeral.

~ Martin Luther King, Jr.

One of the beauties of being an outdoor educator is having a range of environments at your service. Here on Bainbridge Island, we have the benefit of a historical (and current) cemetery, plus an historical society that shares histories of some of the older graves with us. We have used that information to create informational cards that students can use to teach each other. This allows the students to discover at least partial stories of historical lives, often socially charged lives, with our students and helps to create discussions around those issues. I am often surprised the insights that even 9 year-olds can have when given the chance. Here are a few thoughts on how to establish a social/historical perspective in a cemetery with students:

1: First, check-in: While they can be powerful teaching tools, cemeteries sometimes expose a lot of uncomfortable baggage for students. A student may have a recently deceased relative or a cultural norm that makes a cemetery very upsetting to them. If possible, try to respect those circumstances and avoid the cemetery with those groups unless they give you the go-ahead.

2: Establish boundaries: When your students are comfortable (or relatively so) entering a cemetery, make sure they know how to respect it, and why. Clearly establish your views: do you want your group to avoid walking on the graves? Should they avoid climbing on the headstones? Can they make rubbings of the markers? What volume level is appropriate? How will you get them back to you when time is up? Do they understand why their behavior is important?

3: Let them explore, but give them a task: Send your students out into the cemetery with a mission – “Find this headstone, prepare to teach the group about it, and then explore until you hear my call” – so that they have some direction. This gives them time to notice features of the cemetery while they’re exploring, but also saves time so you don’t have to give multiple sets of direction (free explore, then assignment). Informational cards of specific graves, with pictures, are helpful for this. Be sure to wander around and check in with groups as they’re exploring to gain a sense of any discomforts, questions, and to keep them on task.

4: Hear from them: After your students have found their stones and explored the area, call them back to share out. Most of the time, students are intrigued enough by what they’ve seen in the cemetery that they’re engaged and ready to listen. Ask “what did you notice?” and if you want more, “how did you feel?”

5: Have an observation up your sleeve: Save a big observation for yourself: “I noticed some headstones that were out in the woods – not in the main cemetery. Did anyone else notice that?” * or, “I noticed the cemetery seems to be arranged in sections.” If you’ve explored the cemetery before your lesson, sometimes it’s possible to come up with observations that are both unique and unsettling for your students. WHY would someone be buried in the woods instead of in the cemetery? What does that mean? Why wouldn’t someone have since maintained that grave as part of the main cemetery?

6: Take a group tour: Beginning with your own observation that links to social inequality issues, take a group tour of the cemetery. By modeling a presentation of your chosen headstone first, the students will have a clearer understanding of what they should be thinking about during their presentation. Have each student (or pair of students) lead you to the headstone that they researched and teach the group about its highlights. Be prepared with questions like: “Why do you think that happened?” “Have you heard anything from anyone else that might add to that?” to encourage students to get creative with their answers. This can assist them in connecting more emotionally to the history of the people.

7: Debrief: I like to round out the cemetery visit with an introspective piece such as a perspective story (the students write a story from the imagined perspective of a person who once lived in the area) or an ‘I Am From’ poem (the students write a poem about their own lives and the challenges they have/strengths they have following a template and example that you have). If you’d like them to share pieces of their writing, however, be sure to tell them upfront. Sometimes students write very personal things and they’d rather not share the entire piece, so give them your expectations before they get started.


* Disclaimer: As of May 27, 2015, I have not yet received confirmation from the Bainbridge Island Historical Society that the grave-markers in the woods are remnants of past social inequalities. This disclaimer will either be removed once I receive confirmation or I will update the information.